New Lightning Detector

Built to make the wiring easy to follow. Read the text below!

This new lightning detector circuit uses a single inductor tuned circuit to receive static pulses from lightning at a frequency near 200 kHz. The need for a tapped tuned circuit is eliminated by employing a very high input impedance RF amplifier, using a darlington transistor. The amplifier is micro-power, and the whole circuit draws only about 200 uA from two alkaline D cells, hardly denting the shelf life. The flasher portion of the circuit is similar to the earlier versions, only the polarity of the transistors is reversed. As a result, the output pulses momentarily go to ground from a normally-high state.

The schematic and close-up photos were made with the beginner in mind. Questions about the schematic can be answered by close-up examination of the photos. Try a magnifier utility for an even closer look.

The 150k resistor in the base of the 2N4401 may be replaced with a series combination of a 100k resistor and a 100k (or greater) potentiometer to add sensitivity control. Simply adjust the potentiometer until flashing just stops for maximum sensitivity. The fixed resistor is plenty sensitive for most users. But, the receiver will only work well outside or near a window. A few yards of wire could be used to run an antenna out a window, but connect a 47 pF capacitor in series with the wire at the detector end. Also, connecting a good ground will improve the sensitivity. Keep the unit away from electronic or electrical appliances and wiring for best performance.

A common mistake is to select a 10 uH choke instead of a 10 mH. The large green choke in the photo is typical of the size and markings to expect. Color bands are brown, black, orange. A wide silver band often indicates the beginning of the color code.

Some of the other parts in the prototype were chosen to make it easy for the beginner to see the values. For example, the large .1 uF "orange drop" can be a tiny ceramic type. Parts may be in odd positions, too. The orange 10 uF is twisted to make the markings visible and other parts are oriented to make viewing easy. 

The 100 uF shown across the battery is the blue part right below the MPSA63 in the photo below. Notice how it isn't right by the battery connections. Sometimes the position of a component relative to others is important, but that information is often not on a schematic, unless specifically stated. Schematics aren't usually physical representations; they just show which legs of the various parts are electrically connected. Schematics are usually accompanied by assembly drawings as part of a complete design, especially when layout is critical. The point is to not take schematics to be mechanical layout instructions, although they often are a fairly good start. On the other hand, schematics generally aren't intentionally misleading about a good location for the part, either, but a little electronics experience helps a great deal when there's only a schematic to go by.

The parts are not particularly critical. The darlington PNP transistor may be a different number, as may the other transistors. The diodes can be any silicon switching diode, like the 1N4448 (or probably any orange one you have). An amber LED with a 22 ohm resistor draws about 30 mA with fresh batteries. Vary the resistor to achieve the desired LED current for other colors (connect the LED and resistor to the battery through a current meter to select the value). The output transistor can sink several hundred mA, so several LEDs or other loads may be connected in parallel. The head from a cheap LED flahslight that uses two cells will be really bright! The pulse is pretty short to save power and for quick response, but for longer pulses, increase the 10 uF capacitor value. You might want a longer pulse to flash a 3 volt incandescent bulb (my favorite). Actually, I'm using a 1.5 volt bulb and it's really bright (not shown in the photos), even with this short pulse! I have lots of them and I'm sure I'll need to replace it fairly often.

Below is a "photoshopped" close-up without the sensitivity adjustment option. The construction technique was chosen to make it easy to follow the wiring. Normally, the leads would be stuck through the holes and wired on the other side of the perf board. I used the perf board simply as a guide for copper nails driven into a pine board - strictly to make it easy to see all the connections.  The perf board serves no purpose beyond visibility, so one could also use nails and wood for the assembly. The copper nails from the home improvement store really solder easily, by the way.

I made several image edits for clarity and to correct mistakes; they're not perfect but I think the connections are clear.

The next photo shows the optional potentiometer and resistor for adjusting the sensitivity. Notice that the 150k resistor has been removed. The odd-looking color bands on the resistors were painted on to make them more visible after cleaning faded the original bands. The violet band looks a little dark on the 27k resistor between the two diodes; that should be red, violet, orange.

 

Marcos in Brazil made a video of his detector.